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The Psalms of Asaph and the Pentateuch: Studies in the Psalter, III

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Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. In this case the original version was preserved in the psalm, while Amos reflects a later expan- sion, as is common in this prophetic book see above. The expansive tendency yielded an unprecedented bounty of divine names and titles within the limits of the EP. Note, however, that the parallel verse in the same Psalm employs the Tetragram without the supplemen- tary epithet. In sum, the EP displays a clear tendency for using compound titles, and displays some unusual forms of these titles, which are infrequent in other parts of the Psalter and of the Bible in general.

We may thus reaffirm the conviction raised above, namely that the EP incorporates two opposite tendencies. That scribe was not entirely consistent, leaving mentions of the Tetragram especially in refrains, parallelism, hymnic exclamations etc. In the very same scroll one can also find the oppo- site tendency of augmenting the divine titles. We can only cover this aspect here in passing.

The Asaph and Korah collections are presently split in both ends of Books 2—3, as follows: Book 2 Korah 42—49 Asaph 50 David 51—72 Book 3 Asaph 73—83 Korah 84—88 excluding 86 The old contention that the EP contained only Pss 42—83 necessitated the assumption that an old scroll contained Pss 42—83 only, while the second collection of Korah psalms in Pss 84—88 was added only secondarily. This kind of assumption, however, is no longer required when the coherency of the collection 42—89 is accepted, Hence the old scroll must have encompassed the entire scope of Books 2—3.

In the view of Emanuel Tov, the act of this collector was most probably coincidental—he simply took whatever scrolls he could reach in a given setting at a specific library. Furthermore, this ancient scroll contained all the Asaph and Korah psalms known to us.

Psalm 73 - The Tragedy of the Wicked, and the Blessedness of Trust in God (With words - KJV)

In fact, the psalms of these two Levitical families are only known to us in their secondary, Elohistic transmission. Why is it that no other part of the Psalter has preserved other Asaph or Korah psalms?

Studies in the Psalter, III

It must be con- cluded that the Psalms of Asaph and Korah, together with the Davidic collection Pss 51—72 conjoined to them, passed through the hands of a single tradent, and it is under the hands of that tradent that the cor- rection procedure took place. It might be necessary here to somewhat modify the view of Emanuel Tov about the way scrolls were selected to be parts of authoritative collections. Although coincidentality is quite often the case, this specific scroll or its immediate predecessor was selected as part of the authoritative Psalter because it was the only wit- ness to a group of very important and popular psalms.

Thus, of the sixty-odd pages of variants collated by Peter Flint from the Qumran Psalms scrolls, very few items pertain to variations in the Divine name; see Flint, The Dead Sea Psalms Scrolls, 52— The main witness for the psalms, 11QPsa, does not preserve any psalms before Ps 93 and is thus irrelevant as a witness for the EP.


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However, a copy of the same compilation of psalms appears in the smaller scroll 11QPsb. This scroll does preserve small parts of text from Psalms 77—78, but unfortunately, no Divine names remained. For the scroll 11QPsb see Peter W. Anthony Hilhorst et al. In CD col. The pertinent scribal practices were collected in the compre- hensive monograph by Tov. Matthias Henze; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, , 10— The only possible exception is 2QExodb Tov, Scribal Practices, , but the scroll is too fragmentary to discern its literary identity.

The evidence thus suggests that RP scrolls behave like biblical scrolls with regard to the writing of the Tetragram. Hannu Juusola et al. In some cases the holiness of the Divine name was expressed by leaving a mark for the reader or the scribe in the form of a colon followed by an empty space, e. Similarly, the first scribe of 11QPsa left an empty space wherever the name YHWH was required, with this space subsequently filled with the Tetragram in paleo- Hebrew letters, either by a second scribe or by the first one, after he had performed the required purification.

This is the case in all of the scrolls—biblical or non-biblical—that do not employ the Qumranic scribal practice. Even in the group of scrolls that do employ the Qum- ranic practice, most of the biblical scrolls present the Tetragram in square letters without any change. Tov, Scribal Practices, —41, notes a similar practice in additional scrolls: 1QpHab where the Tetragram was added subsequently and possibly also 4QpIse.

This practice continued in manuscripts of the Greek Bible, both early and late Tov, Scribal Practices, It is still reported to have existed in some stringent Jewish medieval circles: Sepher Ha-Eshkol ed. Albeck, repr. Jerusalem: Wagshal, , p. A second scribe working on 1QIsaa, however, who inserted marginal corrections to the work of the former, tends to mark the Tetragram with four dots.

Since our concern here is to find the closest possible parallel to the Elohistic Psalter, we shall deal here mainly with places where the Tet- ragram was substituted or augmented. This kind of practice is rather infrequent in the biblical scrolls from Qumran. A good indication comes from the useful list prepared by Peter Flint of all the variants collated from the Qumran Psalms scrolls; in this list, the number of variants pertaining to the Tetragram is meager.

Alternatively, it may be suggested that the scribe who copied a biblical scroll paid extra attention to his work owing to the holiness of the material at hand, and thus the normal copying of the Tetragram was not prohibited for that scribe. Variant forms appear both in the first and second hands of the scrolls 52 Tov, Scribal Practices, The examples from 1QIsab are taken from Peter W.


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Such a practice was not possible when an actual scriptural verse was quoted. Even if the former could be a product of the first author, the latter must have resulted from cor- rections and expansions. See Donald W. Published in Honour of Joseph M. Baumgarten ed. Moshe J.

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Bernstein et al. He noted nine different methods for avoid- ing the Tetragram in these texts, which will not be listed here. The avoidance of the Tetragram, however, is not a unique feature of letters, since it exists also in legal compositions, in fact in any kind of non-biblical text. One should note here the words of the Tosefta t.

The latest edition of this text is also the editio princeps. A small 4Q copy of the same com- position was recently discovered, but the fragment does not include any Divine name. See Eibert J. The unintentional space was interpreted as a marker for inserting the Tetragram. The introduction of an overly subtle mechanism for the copying and manipulating of the Tetragram would cost the scribe in the price of some dubious divine names and titles scattered in his text. The discussion above raises two points in the Qumran scribal practice of writing the Divine name which resemble the practices in the EP: 1.

The augmentation of the Divine name, either as an accidental dou- blet or as a deliberate correction.

This practice was detected above in the Isaiah scrolls from Cave 1, as well as in two examples in 11QPsa. It may have been present in other biblical scrolls too, but the find of scrolls of the latter prophets outside Cave 1 is too meager to yield significant results in this respect. Synthesis and Discussion The Elohistic Psalter is an unprecedented and unparalleled phenom- enon in the history of the biblical text. The psalms included in EP, including all of the Asaph and Korah psalms known to us, do not appear anywhere outside the EP, nor do they exist in a non-Elohistic version in any textual witness.

Even the earliest quotation of an Elo- histic psalm known to us is itself Elohistic. It is thus clear that the Elohizing of these psalms took place in a very early period. Bibli- cal scholarship is unable to point a similar phenomenon on such a wide scale, which would shed light on the creation of the Elohistic scroll.

The Psalms of Asaph and the Pentateuch: Studies in the Psalter, III

The closest phenomenon that could be traced is the practice in some scrolls from Qumran—admittedly in a not-too-large part of the latter corpus. This stands in contrast to the enigmatic Elohistic scribe, who applied his restrictive ideology on an authoritative and important scroll, one which contained Davidic, Asaphite, and Korahite psalms. Since the biblical scrolls were considered holier, the scribes were granted limited freedom to change the nomina sacra contained in them. Alternatively, the copyists of biblical scrolls were so prudent in their work that no need was felt to force upon them to replace the Tetragram with all sorts of diminu- tive titles and epithets.

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What was the ideology underlying the Elohistic scribal tendency? Today we stand in a better position to evalu- ate the underlying ideology, since in the recent twenty years scholars have suggested quite a few explanations for the ideology underlying the priestly halakhah. Steven D. Fraade et al.